Sustainable agriculture can be key to reducing youth migration in Africa
Migration involves movement of people between geographical locations within or between countries. It is part of the dynamic process of change in every society, and has always been an important component of rural or structural transformation. As economies undergo transformation, the movement of people in search of better employment opportunities within or between countries is inevitable. Contrary to widely-held generalisation, there is greater migration happening within than outside Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for about 15 percent of all international migrants in 2015. That is usually due to high rate of rural unemployment, lack of access to land and financial resources and services. This article examines the prospect of sustainable agriculture as an important pathway for reducing migration in Africa.
Migration can be voluntary or involuntary, temporary, medium to long term, or even permanent, cyclic or seasonal. It may be triggered by choice, necessity, or a forced migration. While economic migration is often warranted by necessity, in search of better livelihoods opportunities. People generally migrate due to political economy, demographic shifts, and environmental reasons and other socioeconomic considerations.
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In extreme cases forced migration may occur due to human-made crises and conflicts, as well as due to natural disasters, environmental degradation and climate change. The circumstances within which people make decisions to migrate depend on the nature of the drivers or the combination of them. Predicting future migration is difficult and requires an understanding of the factors motivating migration flows.