Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic animals (finfish, crustaceans, and mollusks) and seaweeds (kelp) in inland freshwater, brackish coastal water, and seawater. Production takes place in tanks, ponds, net pens and mudflats. Farmed finfish include Asian carps, tilapia, milkfish, catfish, pangasius, salmon, trout, sturgeon, cobia, kingfish, tuna, seabass, halibut, flounder, ornamental, and bait fish. Farmed shellfish and mollusks include shrimp, prawns, crabs; clams, mussels, oysters, abalone, sea urchins, and sea cucumber. Sustainability in aquaculture is essential to prevent the farm from negatively impacting local communities, land, or water resources. However, multi-trophic, closed-containment, and aquaponic production techniques, and a shift from marine to plant-based sources of protein can improve sustainability, but these are still not major components of total production.

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